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Analysis of the Fukushima experiment

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Analysis of the Fukushima experiment

19.10.2014 um 11:14, in der Kategorie Wissenschaft, keine Kommentare
Ok, here goes:

When i had the paper and the video from the experiment at hand the first I did was reading through the description in the first pages of the document and I saw, that there were the measurement protocols from the experiment included as appendices. The description itself is not very helpfull, it does not go into detail, so I concentrated on the measurement protocol.

The protocols are in Japanese, but the values are given in normal numbers. I looked into the first protocol (marked as [1] in the paper on page 23. Note that every protocol is exactly one page and the protocols are obviously original protocols from the measurement device) and I saw a value of

0,956 g/cm³.

This is clearly a density value and it could not be correct. Why? because all the samples are more or less contaminated water with a considerable amount of soil in it (the video shows that clearly) and destilled water at 25°C has a density of

0,99704 g/cm³

Given the amount of soil, which has a higher density (it sinks down in the water) the density must be higher than that of destilled water. There is no way around that.

In this first protocol the deviation is small and could be explained with an inexact measurement of the volume.

Ok, next step.

A little bit suspicious because of this inexact value I moved to the next protocol [2] on page 24 and looked again at the density value and then the first warning lights started to blink

Here the density value was 0.436 g/cm³

This can in no way be explained with a measurement error. Here are the density values of protocols [1] through [9] together with the volume

inputs to the spectrometer

[1] 0.956 g/cm3 / 1000 mL (!)
[2] 0.436 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[3] 0.509 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[4] 0.644 g/cm3 / 1000 mL (!)
[5] 0.933 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[6] 0.933 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[7] 0.933 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[8] 0.933 g/cm3 / 1500 mL
[9] 0.933 g/cm3 / 1500 mL

All volumes are wrong as can easily be seen in the video and therefore of course the densities (calculated from the entered volume and the entered weight of the samples by the measurement software) as well.

But there is more to it. The spectrometer used, it's a SEM211 and the measurement software uses these values to calculate the radiation values (Bq/Kg) from the actual measured counts (cps - counts per second) in the scintillation crystal. This value is given in the protocols in the third
column of the table above the diagram

Let's look at the cps values in measurements [2] to [4] (first line - this is the total value for Cs)

[2] 6,37 cps
[3] 4,027 cps
[4] 1,698 cps

Then we calculate the Bq absolute from the Bq/Kg and the weight of the samples

[2] 414,06 * 0,6545 = 271,00227
[3] 225,11 * 0,7638 = 171,939
[4] 84,49 * 0,644 = 54,41

And divide these values by the cps - values. This gives us pretty exact the factor which the EMF211 used to calculate the Bq absolute value from the cps measured

[2]271,00227 / 6,37 = 42,54352747
[3]171,939 / 4,027 = 42,6965483
[4]54,41 / 1,698 = 32,04358068 (!!) <---

And here in protocol [4] we have (part of - you will see the rest later in the analysis of the video) the miraculous reduction in radiation. Because of the false volume inputs (1500 mL in [2] and [3], but just 1000 mL in [4] the software calculated an about 25% lower cps to Bq factor

You can download the pdf for free here:
and here is the link to the recorded Skype transmission:

But this is not all.

Now let's fire up the video and look at the volumes, which are clearly visible.
Before we start I'll give you some quick explanation how the SEM211 works and what a Marinelli beaker is. This knowledge is crucial for understanding what's happening in the experiment.

The SEM211 is a gamma ray spectrometer and basically consists of a detector crystal (in this case a NaI(TI) Crystal - Natrium - Jodide, doted with Thallium -. It is a transparent material in which each incoming gamma ray causes a tiny flash of light, where the intensity of this light is directly proportional to the energy of the gamma photon). The dimensions of this crystal with it's housing (the "scintillator") in the measurements of the experiment is 3 inches (7,62 cm) in diameter and 8 cm in height. This housing looks out of the bottom of the sample compartment. The Marinelli beakers (see below) have an inner cylinder at the bottom which fits over the scintillator.

Attached to the scitillator is a photomultiplier tube which detects and amplifies the tiny light flashes and delivers an electrical signal on the output, which is proportional to the intensity of the light flash and thus to the energy of the gamma photon. This is the heart of the instrument and the detector assembly.
The output of the detector is now fed into a battery of comparators (mostly 4096), often named "channels" and adjacent counters and the pulses from the detector assembly are sorted by their energy and each pulse causes an increment by 1 in the channel which is related to the voltage and thus to the energy of the photon. The result is shown at the bottom of each measurement protocol as a diagram where the horizontal axis is the energy and the vertical axis the number of hits with this energy.

The Marinelli beaker is a special cylindric beaker with a second inner cylinder from the botton upwards. This inner cylinder goes over the scintillator when the beaker is put into the compartment for a measurement, so the crystal is as exact as possible in the centre of the sample.
And now there is an important problem:

The percentage of a samples radiation which reaches the crystal depends on how high the sample is filled in the beaker. This is a simple question of geometry and you can easily understand that if you just make a sketchy drawing. The Software in the attached computer has pretty good developed routines and tables , which calculate this percentage from the weight, the type of Marinelli beaker and the volume filled in and deliver a mutiplication factor which, multiplied with the number of counts, gives the total radiation for the whole sample. For a useful measurement it is crucial that the software knows the exact volume of the sample and its weight. If the weight and the volumes are correct the software as well calculates a correct attenuation factor. (the sample material itself attenuates the gamma rays depending on it's density) This volume and weight must be entered by the operator at the beginning of each measurement and if the operator gets it wrong, the results can be off as much as 50%.In a last step the Bequerel count is divided by the weight entered, giving the radiation in Bequerel per kilogram.

A further crucial factor for a correct measurement is, that the concentration of the radioactive material in the sample remains constant during the measuring time and is equally distributed over the whole sample. Only then the measurements result is reliable. The reason is again the geometry of the beaker and the density of the sample as stated above. Keep that in mind when we come to the measurement and the protocols again.

We have seen in the first part of the text that the operator entered the weights correct, but the density values in the protocol show, that he got the volumes completely wrong and now we will proof that, looking through the video, which is the recording of the livestream transmission of the experiment. Here we will even see more of the crucial mistakes made in this experiment.

Let's start at the very beginning and make a timeline. Times from the start of the video are given in hh:mm:ss

3:25 After introducing the assistant Ms. Yukako Saito explains which sample they have.

9:37 After some discussion about if a radiation was measured before, which is irrelevant for the experiment Ms. Saito shows dirty water in a Marinelli beaker, filled up to almost exactly 1000 mL (+/- 5 mL). Note that this is NOT well water.

9:45 Ms. Saito explains, that at the previous day this water was used to soak the soil sample and this morning was separated from the soil and Keshe is satisfied that she did what he had asked her to do.

10:10 Ms. Saito gives the radiation of this water as 5.36 Bq/Kg (Note: the values in the video are generally given in Bq/kg).

10:20 Ms. Saito gives the radiation of the soil which had been soaked with that water as 1187 Bq/Kg

11:10 Ms. Saito clarifies the reading: 1187.0 is the soil plus the water, 5.36 the water only.

11:40 Ms. Saito gives now the both above values for Cs-137 only: 851.0 for soil plus water, 3.61 for water
and for Cs-134 it's 335.0 and 1.70

Note: it is not clear how this measurement was performed, there is no information available in the document or the video.

12:30 Ms. Saito is asked by Keshe if they have some contaminated water and she suggest to soak the soil sample in the box with that water and Keshe agrees. NOTE: This is NOT well water as is claimed in the pdf.

on page 4 of the pdf it reads:
The soil in a box was soaked with well water (Table 1) and few drops of detergent (to allow better release of radioactive elements into the water) and stirred well(Figure 1)
Note, that this is the water which was actually used

Now let's look into the description of that step in the pdf.
(each protocol has a machine generated timestamp in the left top corner)

In table 1 on page 4 left two columns we have the well water readings:
Absolute: (2) - not measurable
Relative: (2 +/- 3) also not measurable (all values in parens are below the detection limit of the instrument)
In the video we can see, that Ms. Saito calls out the value with 5.36 Bq/kg which is 5,35 +/- 0,1 Absolute
But there is more to it: look at the time of the well water measurement and the initial water mesurement (columns 3 and 4 in the same table)
well water: 13:42, initial water 12:01
and the timestamps in the protocols at pages 23 and 24 have
well water: 2014/03/29 15:46:57 and initial water: 2014/03/29 12:17:27
These are automatic time stamps generated by the measuring software and threfore trustworthy

Note that the time stamps at page 4 and pages 23/24 are totally different (don't overlook, that page 4 refers to the protocols [1] and [2]) and that the time when the alleged well water was measured is more that three hours AFTER it has been allegedly used.

I won't draw any conclusion here, conclusions will come after the analysis is completed.

13:15 The assistant pours the contaminated, dirty water into the box with the soil and Keshe asks for some soap, because he assumes and states, that this will help extracting the radiation from the soil into the water.

13:40 Here the shape of the Marinelli beaker can clearly be seen, including the inner cylinder. To know this shape is important, because it makes a pretty exact measurements of the real volumes (using the video) used easy.

14:24 Ms. Saito puts a few drops of dish washing liquid into the box. It is not visible how much exactly, but it's a tiny amount, maybe 1 mL

14:45 Keshe tells Ms. Saito to mix the content of the box very well and she stirs the stuff with a spoon (! :) )

15:50 Keshe advices to take some orange and put the oil (sic !) into the mix, "because this is the best thing to get the radioactive material out into the water." At 16:16 Ms. Saito tells Keshe, that the dishwashing liquid contains "orange oil" and he is satisfied.

16:32 Keshe tells Ms. Saito to measure the mix now.

18:40 After a discussion about the radiation of the other two samples the assistant stirs the mix in the box once more and then, at

19:28 Keshe tells them "to drain the water from the mix". The content of the box is poured into a Marinelli beaker, Keshe tells them only to pour the water (after the mix has just before stirred (!) ) the assistant pours most of the heavily muddy water into the beaker and does not immediately stop when Keshe says so. An amount of 1200 +/- 20 mL is poured into the beaker, that means, that about 200 mL very dense soil have been added to the 1000 mL of slightly dirty water which was poured into the box before.

I still won't draw any conclusions. Draw your own if you like.

19:50 The assistant brings the beaker with the muddy water to the adjacent room where the spectrometer and the laptops are located.

20:09 The assistant weighs the sample, the value is not readable. At 20:30 the spectrometer can shortly be seen. I visited the SEM homepage and verified, that it is really a SEM211 (there is a foto on their page.)At 20:40 the operator enters the measurement parameters and starts the measurement. Again it is not to see which parameter values he uses.

23:00 The assistant puts the box with the remaining soil out of view. Now we are waiting for the measurement result. The measurement time is 15 minutes.

While the assistant and Ms. Saito are waiting for the measurement to complete an interesting detail: Have you noticed the precautions which Ms. Saito takes? double gloves, a mask...
Limits for foodstuff imports from Japan into EU:
For dairy products, 500 becquerels per kilogram (bq/kg) of iodine is allowed and 1000 bq/kg of cesium. For all other foodstuffs, the levels rise to 2000 bq/kg of iodine and 1250 bq/kg of cesium."
Agreed, this limits are high, but that is for foodstuff which enters the body. The highest level in the Fukushima experiment is slightly above these limits and the values in the measurement chain are far below these limits. Ms. Saito is not supposed to eat that stuff. To be careful is a good thing and Ms. Saito is obviously doing what Keshe tells her, but the whole precautions leave the impression, that they are ordered by Keshe for some dramatic show. And they won't protect the least against gamma rays.

During the waiting time an empty Marinelli beaker can be seen at the right side of the picture, wher you again can see the inner cylinder. It is clear enough to be measured and with a simple formula the real dimensions can be calculated. (just in case you are curious)

27:50 Ms. Saito tells Keshe, that the measurement results will be sent to him in pdf format. These are the protocols which you find in the paper.

29:40 Keshe again asks if Ms. Saito has some contaminated water, she tells him that there is a container full "for tomorrow"

30:10 Keshe again warns Ms. Saito to "stay away from the material" and "let the assistant do it" (the assistant is practically unprotected. Keshe is a bright example of humanity) but never mind - the radiation levels are far below food limits, it's just a dramatic gag of Keshe, which is repeated several times during the video.

To be continued soon, so have a look frequently...
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